A signature (from Latin: signare, "to sign") is a handwritten((No gloss)) (and often stylized) depiction(描画) of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent. The writer of a signature is a signatory(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) or signer. Similar to a handwritten((No gloss)) signature, a signature work describes the work as readily identifying its creator.(創造者,創作者,創設者,クリエーター) A signature may be confused with an autograph((有名人からもらう)サイン,自署,自筆,肉筆), which is chiefly an artistic signature. This can lead to confusion when people have both an autograph((有名人からもらう)サイン,自署,自筆,肉筆) and signature and as such some people in the public eye keep their signatures private whilst(=while) fully publishing their autograph.((有名人からもらう)サイン,自署,自筆,肉筆)
Function and types
The traditional function of a signature is evidential: it is to give evidence of:
- The provenance of the document (identity)
- The intention (will) of an individual with regard to that document
For example, the role of a signature in many consumer(消費者) contracts is not solely to provide evidence of the identity of the contracting party, but also to provide evidence of deliberation(1.熟考,思案,2.《しばしば〜s》(正式な)協議,討議,審議) and informed consent.
In many countries, signatures may be witnessed and recorded in the presence of a notary((No gloss)) public to carry additional legal force. On legal documents, an illiterate(読み書きのできない,文盲の,教育のない,無学の) signatory(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) can make a "mark" (often an "X" but occasionally a personalized(〜を個人のものとする,〜に自分の頭文字[名前・住所などを]を付ける[印刷する]) symbol), so long as the document is countersigned by a literate(1.識字能力のある,文学通の,2.文献,学問のある人,読み書きのできる人,読み書きできる) witness. In some countries, illiterate(読み書きのできない,文盲の,教育のない,無学の) people place a thumbprint on legal documents in lieu(in lieu of 〜の代わりに) of a written signature.
There are many other terms which are synonymous(同意語の,同義語の) with 'signature'. In the United States, one is John Hancock, named after the first of the signatories(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) of the United States Declaration of Independence.
The signature of a famous person is sometimes known as an autograph((有名人からもらう)サイン,自署,自筆,肉筆), and is then typically written on its own or with a brief note to the recipient.(1.受取人,受容者,受賞者,2.受容性のある,感受性のある,(考えなどを)受け入れる) Rather than providing authentication((No gloss)) for a document, the autograph((有名人からもらう)サイン,自署,自筆,肉筆) is given as a souvenir(記念品,土産,おみやげ,お土産) which acknowledges(白状する,感謝する,認める,承認する,認めている) the recipient's(1.受取人,受容者,受賞者,2.受容性のある,感受性のある,(考えなどを)受け入れる) access to the autographer.
In the United States, signatures encompass((No gloss)) marks and actions of all sorts that are indicative(表示する,暗示する,【文法】直説法(の)) of identity and intent. The legal rule is that unless a statute(法令,法規,規則,法,法律) specifically prescribes(命令する,を規定する,(薬などを)処方する,指示する,方針を規定する) a particular method of making a signature it may be made in any number of ways. These include by a mechanical or rubber stamp facsimile. A signature may be made by the purported(1.主旨,意味(meaning),意図,目的,2.(であると)称する,主張する,を意味する,意味する) signatory;(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) alternatively(二者択一的に,代りになるべき物として) someone else duly(正式に,まさに) authorized(に権限を与える,委任する,認可する,に権威を持たせる,公認する,是認する) by the signatory,(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) acting in the signer's presence and at the signatory's(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) direction, may make the signature.
Many individuals have much more fanciful(想像力に富む,気まぐれな,空想的な,非現実的な) signatures than their normal cursive(続け書きの,草書体の) writing, including elaborate ascenders, descenders and exotic(1.異国(風)の,外国(産)の,外来の,異国情緒の,風変わりな,魅惑的な,2.外来の物,外人) flourishes, much as one would find in calligraphic writing. As an example, the final "k" in John Hancock's famous signature on the US Declaration of Independence loops(環状をなす折返し点,に巻き付ける,輪になる,宙返り飛行する,ループ,を輪にする,輪,宙返り,輪にする) back to underline his name. This kind of flourish is also known as a paraph.
Several cultures whose languages use writing systems other than alphabets do not share the Western notion of signatures per se: the "signing" of one's name results in a written product no different from the result of "writing" one's name in the standard way. For these languages, to write or to sign involves the same written characters. Also see Calligraphy.
Mechanically produced signatures
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (April 2010)|
Special signature machines, called autopens, are capable of automatically reproducing an individual's signature. These are typically used by people required to sign a lot of printed matter, such as celebrities,(有名人,名士,名声,著名人) heads of state or CEOs.
More recently, Members of Congress in the United States have begun having their signature made into a TrueType font(1.洗礼盤,聖水盤,油壷,2.フォント,洗礼盤) file. This allows staff members in the Congressman's office to easily reproduce it on correspondence,(文通,通信,交通,一致,書状) legislation, and official documents.
In the East Asian languages of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, people typically use name-seals with the name written in tensho script(筆記体活字,手書き,スクリプト,台本,文字) (seal script(筆記体活字,手書き,スクリプト,台本,文字)) in lieu(in lieu of 〜の代わりに) of a handwritten((No gloss)) signature.
Some government agencies require that professional persons or official reviewers sign originals and all copies of originals to authenticate(信頼できることを証明する) that they personally viewed the content. In the United States this is prevalent(普及した,流行した,流行の,流行する,一般的な,有力な,多く見られる) with architectural and construction plans. Its intent is to prevent mistakes or fraud(詐欺行為,欺瞞,詐欺,ごまかし,ぺてん,詐欺師,欺瞞に満ちた人,ぺてん師) but the practice is not known to be effective.
In e-mail and newsgroup usage,(用法,使用法,慣用法,使用) another type of signature exists which is independent of one's language. Users can set one or more lines of custom text known as a signature block to be automatically appended(添える) to their messages. This text usually includes a name, contact information, and sometimes quotations(見積書,引用,相場,引用すること,引用文,時価,見積り) and ASCII art. A shortened form of a signature block, only including one's name, often with some distinguishing prefix,(1.(番号・名前などの)前に付けるもの,(電話の)市内局番,敬称,2.【文法】接頭辞,接頭語,3.前に付ける) can be used to simply indicate the end of a post or response. Some web(織物,くもの巣,くもの巣状の,みずかき,編物,蜘蛛の巣,罠,繊維,膜,指の間の皮膜) sites(用地,場所,遺跡,現場,跡,用地を定める) also allow graphics to be used. Note, however, that this type of signature is not related to electronic signatures or digital signatures, which are more technical in nature and not directly understandable by humans.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (April 2010)|
The signature on a painting or other work of art has always been an important item in the assessment(評価,査定) of art. Fake signatures are sometimes added to enhance((強さ・量・質・機能など)を増す,高める,向上させる,充実させる,(写真などの)画質を補正する) the value of a painting, or are added to a fake(1.〜のふりをする,仮病を使う,ねつ造する,だます,2.ごまかし,いかさま) painting to support its authenticity.(信憑性) A notorious(悪評の高い,悪名高い,周知の) case was the signature of Johannes Vermeer on the fake(1.〜のふりをする,仮病を使う,ねつ造する,だます,2.ごまかし,いかさま) "Supper at Emmaus" made by the art-forger Han van Meegeren.
However, the fact that often painters' signatures vary over time (particularly in the modern and contemporary periods) might complicate the issue. The signatures of some painters take on an artistic form that may be of less value in determining forgeries.(偽造) For example, Daniel C. Boyer's gouaches are known for their often large, elaborate to the point of near-illegibility, and multicoloured signatures.
The term "signature" is also used to mean the characteristics that give an object, or a piece of information, its identity—for example, the shape of a Coca-Cola bottle.
By analogy,(類似,類推,(生)相似) the word "signature" may be used to refer to the characteristic expression of a process or thing. For example, the climate phenomenon known as ENSO or El Niño has characteristic modes in different ocean basins which are often referred to as the "signature" of ENSO.
Under United States Copyright Law, "titles, names [...]; mere variations of typographic ornamentation,((No gloss)) lettering, or coloring" are not eligible(資格のある,適格の,望ましい,満足な,適格者,適任者,有資格者,できる,格好の,資格がある,有資格の) for copyright;(著作権,版権,著作権で保護する) however, the appearance of signatures (not the names themselves) may be protected under copyright(著作権,版権,著作権で保護する) law.
Uniform Commercial Code
Uniform Commercial Code §1-201(37) of the United States generally defines signed as "using any symbol executed(芸術品を創作する,果たす,実行する,計画を実行する,曲を演奏する,契約を履行する,を死刑にする) or adopted with present intention to adopt or accept a writing."
Uniform Commercial Code §3-401(b) for negotiable(交渉できる,交渉の余地がある) instruments states "A signature may be made (i) manually(手で,手細工で) or by means of a device or machine, and (ii) by the use of any name, including a trade or assumed name, or by a word, mark, or symbol executed(芸術品を創作する,果たす,実行する,計画を実行する,曲を演奏する,契約を履行する,を死刑にする) or adopted by a person with present intention to authenticate(信頼できることを証明する) a writing."
- Autograph club
- Biometric signature as form of the Electronic signature
- Cryptographic (digital) signature using Public key infrastructure
- Diabolical signature, said to identify the demons in diabolical pacts
- Images of signatures
- manu propria (m.p.)
- Mobile Signature
- Royal sign-manual
- Signature move
|Look up signature in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Signatures.|
|Wikidata has a property, P109, for signature (see uses)|
- "John Hancock". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Oxford English Dictionary, accessed May 3, 2011.
- 80 Corpus Juris Secundum, Signatures, sections 2 through 7
- paraphe is a term meaning flourish, initial or signature in French. French to English translation by CollinsDictionary.com. Collins French-English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved November 09, 2012.
- The paraph is used in graphology analyses.
- Spilsbury, Sallie (2000). Media Law. Cavendish Publishing. p. p. 439. ISBN 1-85941-530-X. "An individual's signature may be protected under law as an artistic work. If so, the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright. The name itself will not be protected by copyright; it is the appearance of the signature which is protected."
- "Copyright Basics", United States Copyright Office. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Spilsbury, Sallie (2000). Media Law. Cavendish Publishing. p. 439. ISBN 1-85941-530-X. "An individual's signature may be protected under law as an artistic work. If so, the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright. The name itself will not be protected by copyright; it is the appearance of the signature which is protected."
- Why Do We Sign For Things? A Rabbi, A Lawyer And A MasterCard Exec Explain NPR / Planet Money