Signature

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This article is about the handwritten mark. For other uses, see Signature (disambiguation).
For the use of signatures in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Signatures.
John Hancock's signature is the most prominent on the United States Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. The name "John Hancock" has become a synonym for "signature".[citation needed]

A signature (from Latin: signare, "to sign") is a handwritten((No gloss)) (and often stylized) depiction(描画) of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on documents(証拠書類を出す,文書,書類,証明する) as a proof of identity(1.同一視する,2.個性,独自性,自分自身,正体,身元,アイデンティティ,一致,個性 / If he had an identity, it was the identity of chaging, of be being anything; it wa the identity of the actor for whom there is a continual drama. -Delta of Venus) and intent.(一心に向けた,熱心な) The writer of a signature is a signatory(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) or signer. Similar to a handwritten((No gloss)) signature, a signature work describes the work as readily(敏速に,すぐに,たやすく) identifying its creator.(創造者,創作者,創設者,クリエーター) A signature may be confused(戸惑わせる,混同する,混乱させる,乱す,困惑させる) with an autograph((有名人からもらう)サイン,自署,自筆,肉筆), which is chiefly an artistic(美術家の,芸術的な,風雅な,芸術の,趣がある) signature. This can lead to confusion(混乱状態,混乱,錯乱,混同,当惑) when people have both an autograph((有名人からもらう)サイン,自署,自筆,肉筆) and signature and as such some people in the public eye keep their signatures private whilst(=while) fully publishing their autograph.((有名人からもらう)サイン,自署,自筆,肉筆)

Function and types[edit]

Signature of Benjamin Franklin

The traditional function(1.機能,関数,役割,働き,2.機能する,作用する,働く,役目を果たす,3.社交的会合,パーティー,儀式) of a signature is evidential: it is to give evidence of:

  1. The provenance of the document (identity)
  2. The intention (will) of an individual with regard to that document

For example, the role of a signature in many consumer(消費者) contracts is not solely to provide evidence of the identity(1.同一視する,2.個性,独自性,自分自身,正体,身元,アイデンティティ,一致,個性 / If he had an identity, it was the identity of chaging, of be being anything; it wa the identity of the actor for whom there is a continual drama. -Delta of Venus) of the contracting party, but also to provide evidence of deliberation(1.熟考,思案,2.《しばしば〜s》(正式な)協議,討議,審議) and informed consent.(1.同意する,承諾する,2.黙諾,承諾,同意,一致)

In many countries, signatures may be witnessed and recorded in the presence of a notary((No gloss)) public to carry additional(追加の) legal(強制的な,法定の,法律の,合法の,合法的な,法的な) force. On legal(強制的な,法定の,法律の,合法の,合法的な,法的な) documents,(証拠書類を出す,文書,書類,証明する) an illiterate(読み書きのできない,文盲の,教育のない,無学の) signatory(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) can make a "mark" (often an "X" but occasionally(たまに,時折,時々,★"必要に応じて"とか,"何か起きたときに"と考えると理解し易い / You will occasionally be required to tune your system.) a personalized(〜を個人のものとする,〜に自分の頭文字[名前・住所などを]を付ける[印刷する]) symbol), so long as the document(証拠書類を出す,文書,書類,証明する) is countersigned by a literate(1.識字能力のある,文学通の,2.文献,学問のある人,読み書きのできる人,読み書きできる) witness. In some countries, illiterate(読み書きのできない,文盲の,教育のない,無学の) people place a thumbprint on legal(強制的な,法定の,法律の,合法の,合法的な,法的な) documents(証拠書類を出す,文書,書類,証明する) in lieu(in lieu of 〜の代わりに) of a written signature.

There are many other terms which are synonymous(同意語の,同義語の) with 'signature'. In the United States, one is John Hancock, named after the first of the signatories(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) of the United States Declaration of Independence.[1]

Signature of Mahatma Gandhi

The signature of a famous person is sometimes known as an autograph((有名人からもらう)サイン,自署,自筆,肉筆), and is then typically written on its own or with a brief(要点を伝える,概要を作る,短い・簡潔な,摘要,大意,訴訟事件,しばらくの,短時間の,簡潔な,概要説明,摘要書,要約する,短い) note to the recipient.(1.受取人,受容者,受賞者,2.受容性のある,感受性のある,(考えなどを)受け入れる) Rather than providing authentication((No gloss)) for a document,(証拠書類を出す,文書,書類,証明する) the autograph((有名人からもらう)サイン,自署,自筆,肉筆) is given as a souvenir(記念品,土産,おみやげ,お土産) which acknowledges(白状する,感謝する,認める,承認する,認めている) the recipient's(1.受取人,受容者,受賞者,2.受容性のある,感受性のある,(考えなどを)受け入れる) access(にアクセスする,交通の便,接近,近づき,発作,面接,アクセス,手引き) to the autographer.

In the United States, signatures encompass((No gloss)) marks and actions of all sorts that are indicative(表示する,暗示する,【文法】直説法(の)) of identity(1.同一視する,2.個性,独自性,自分自身,正体,身元,アイデンティティ,一致,個性 / If he had an identity, it was the identity of chaging, of be being anything; it wa the identity of the actor for whom there is a continual drama. -Delta of Venus) and intent.(一心に向けた,熱心な) The legal(強制的な,法定の,法律の,合法の,合法的な,法的な) rule is that unless a statute(法令,法規,規則,法,法律) specifically(明確に,特に,とりわけ,具体的に,具体的には,特別に) prescribes(命令する,を規定する,(薬などを)処方する,指示する,方針を規定する) a particular method of making a signature it may be made in any number of ways. These include by a mechanical(機械的な,機械の,メカニズム,機械的だ) or rubber stamp facsimile.(ファクシミリ(で送る),複写(する),複製,模写,ファックス;略:FAX) A signature may be made by the purported(1.主旨,意味(meaning),意図,目的,2.(であると)称する,主張する,を意味する,意味する) signatory;(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) alternatively(二者択一的に,代りになるべき物として) someone else duly(正式に,まさに) authorized(に権限を与える,委任する,認可する,に権威を持たせる,公認する,是認する) by the signatory,(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) acting in the signer's presence and at the signatory's(参加調印した,署名者,条約国) direction, may make the signature.[2]

Many individuals(1.ひとりひとり,個人の,単一の,個々の,一個人の,個人的な,2.個体,個人) have much more fanciful(想像力に富む,気まぐれな,空想的な,非現実的な) signatures than their normal cursive(続け書きの,草書体の) writing, including elaborate(1.精巧な,念入りに作った,2.〜を念入りに仕上げる,精巧な,凝る,詳述する,念入りな) ascenders, descenders and exotic(1.異国(風)の,外国(産)の,外来の,異国情緒の,風変わりな,魅惑的な,2.外来の物,外人) flourishes(みせびらかし,繁栄する,華麗な身振り,見せびらかし,ファンファーレ,美辞麗句,育つ,栄える,活躍する), much as one would find in calligraphic writing. As an example, the final "k" in John Hancock's famous signature on the US Declaration of Independence loops(環状をなす折返し点,に巻き付ける,輪になる,宙返り飛行する,ループ,を輪にする,輪,宙返り,輪にする) back to underline his name. This kind of flourish(みせびらかし,繁栄する,華麗な身振り,見せびらかし,ファンファーレ,美辞麗句,育つ,栄える,活躍する) is also known as a paraph.[3][4]

Several cultures whose languages use writing systems other than alphabets do not share the Western notion(心に思うこと,概念,観念,意向,意志,考え) of signatures per(につき,〜で,ごとに,によって,を通じて,《ラテン語》[前]〜によって) se: the "signing" of one's name results in a written product no different from the result of "writing" one's name in the standard way. For these languages, to write or to sign involves(人を巻き込む,巻き込む,を含む,必要とする,意味する) the same written characters. Also see Calligraphy.

Mechanically produced signatures[edit]

Special signature machines, called autopens, are capable(手腕のある,能力のある,有能な,ができる) of automatically(自動的に) reproducing(生殖させる,再現する,を複製する,を模写する,を再生する,再生する,繁殖させる,繁殖する) an individual's(1.ひとりひとり,個人の,単一の,個々の,一個人の,個人的な,2.個体,個人) signature. These are typically used by people required to sign a lot of printed matter, such as celebrities,(有名人,名士,名声,著名人) heads of state or CEOs.

More recently, Members of Congress in the United States have begun having their signature made into a TrueType font(1.洗礼盤,聖水盤,油壷,2.フォント,洗礼盤) file.(1.綴じ込む, (正式に)(申請書・告訴など)を提起する,提出する,2.ファイル) This allows staff(スタッフ,杖,職員,人員,職員を置く) members in the Congressman's office to easily reproduce(生殖させる,再現する,を複製する,を模写する,を再生する,再生する,繁殖させる,繁殖する) it on correspondence,(文通,通信,交通,一致,書状) legislation,(法律制定,法規,法律,法,立法) and official documents.(証拠書類を出す,文書,書類,証明する)

East Asian name seal

In the East Asian languages of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, people typically use name-seals(【動】(動物)アザラシ,印,封印,に印を押す,に調印する,に封をする,公印,判を押す,封じ込める,封をする) with the name written in tensho script(筆記体活字,手書き,スクリプト,台本,文字) (seal(【動】(動物)アザラシ,印,封印,に印を押す,に調印する,に封をする,公印,判を押す,封じ込める,封をする) script(筆記体活字,手書き,スクリプト,台本,文字)) in lieu(in lieu of 〜の代わりに) of a handwritten((No gloss)) signature.

Wet signatures[edit]

Some government(1.政府機関,政治,行政,政府,関係官庁,2.政治体制,国家組織,3.統治,支配,管理,運営,★適切な訳語を見つけるのにかなり苦労する,訳語にあてられている日本語そのものの意味を理解する必要がある) agencies require that professional persons or official reviewers sign originals(1.独創的な,最初の,原文の,オリジナルの,2.(the 〜)原型,本人,オリジナル,原語,原書) and all copies of originals(1.独創的な,最初の,原文の,オリジナルの,2.(the 〜)原型,本人,オリジナル,原語,原書) to authenticate(信頼できることを証明する) that they personally(個人的に,自分自身で,直接に,自分としては,個人へあてたものとして,自ら) viewed the content. In the United States this is prevalent(普及した,流行した,流行の,流行する,一般的な,有力な,多く見られる) with architectural and construction(建築様式,建造,建築,構成,【文法】構文,解釈,説明) plans. Its intent(一心に向けた,熱心な) is to prevent mistakes or fraud(詐欺行為,欺瞞,詐欺,ごまかし,ぺてん,詐欺師,欺瞞に満ちた人,ぺてん師) but the practice is not known to be effective.

Online usage[edit]

Main article: Signature block

In e-mail and newsgroup usage,(用法,使用法,慣用法,使用) another type of signature exists which is independent of one's language. Users can set one or more lines of custom text known as a signature block to be automatically(自動的に) appended(添える) to their messages. This text usually includes a name, contact(接触,接点,連絡,連絡を取る) information, and sometimes quotations(見積書,引用,相場,引用すること,引用文,時価,見積り) and ASCII art. A shortened(短くする,短くなる) form of a signature block, only including one's name, often with some distinguishing(目立たせる,区別する,分類する,識別する,を特徴づける,見分ける,顕著にする) prefix,(1.(番号・名前などの)前に付けるもの,(電話の)市内局番,敬称,2.【文法】接頭辞,接頭語,3.前に付ける) can be used to simply indicate(の印である,を指し示す,を表す,暗示する,を指す,を表示する,を必要とする,シグナルを送る,ほのめかす,示す,必要とする) the end of a post or response. Some web(織物,くもの巣,くもの巣状の,みずかき,編物,蜘蛛の巣,罠,繊維,膜,指の間の皮膜) sites(用地,場所,遺跡,現場,跡,用地を定める) also allow graphics(グラフィック,グラフの,図画の,グラフィックアートの,まのあたりに見るような,生きいきとした) to be used. Note, however, that this type of signature is not related to electronic(電子の,電子による,電子工学の) signatures or digital(ディジタル,数字式,指の,デジタルの,デジタル式の) signatures, which are more technical(1.手法の,技術の,工業の,専門的な,技術的な,形式的な,2.《俗語》細かい事,余計な事) in nature and not directly understandable by humans.

Other uses[edit]

Vermeer's signature

The signature on a painting or other work of art has always been an important item(品目,項目,条項,細目,種目,アイテム,同じく) in the assessment(評価,査定) of art. Fake signatures are sometimes added to enhance((強さ・量・質・機能など)を増す,高める,向上させる,充実させる,(写真などの)画質を補正する) the value of a painting, or are added to a fake(1.〜のふりをする,仮病を使う,ねつ造する,だます,2.ごまかし,いかさま) painting to support its authenticity.(信憑性) A notorious(悪評の高い,悪名高い,周知の) case was the signature of Johannes Vermeer on the fake(1.〜のふりをする,仮病を使う,ねつ造する,だます,2.ごまかし,いかさま) "Supper at Emmaus" made by the art-forger Han van(コンテナ,大型有蓋トラック,バン,小荷物車,小型トラック,ライトバン) Meegeren.

However, the fact that often painters' signatures vary(変わる,(形・性質などを)変える,改める,異なる,変化する) over time (particularly in the modern and contemporary(1.現代の,最新の,当代の,同時代の,2.同時期の人,同年齢の人,同時代人) periods) might complicate(1.面倒にする,複雑にする,困難にする,悪化させる,2.複雑な) the issue.(1.発券,発行(物),供給(物),発刊(物),発布,刷,(雑誌などの)〜号,出ること,問題(点),論点,結果,出口,流出,子女,子孫,2.発行する,支給する,出る,発する,由来する,(結果が〜に)なる,出す,発布する,出版する,流出する,現れる / Hugh Hefner sat at his desk in the Playboy office on this wintry day in 1955 deciding which of Diane Webber's nude photographs would be the center fold in the May issue.) The signatures of some painters take on an artistic(美術家の,芸術的な,風雅な,芸術の,趣がある) form that may be of less value in determining forgeries.(偽造) For example, Daniel C. Boyer's gouaches are known for their often large, elaborate(1.精巧な,念入りに作った,2.〜を念入りに仕上げる,精巧な,凝る,詳述する,念入りな) to the point of near-illegibility, and multicoloured signatures.

The term "signature" is also used to mean the characteristics(1.特質,特徴,2.独特の,特有の,特性の,独特の) that give an object, or a piece of information, its identity—for(1.同一視する,2.個性,独自性,自分自身,正体,身元,アイデンティティ,一致,個性 / If he had an identity, it was the identity of chaging, of be being anything; it wa the identity of the actor for whom there is a continual drama. -Delta of Venus) example, the shape of a Coca-Cola bottle.

By analogy,(類似,類推,(生)相似) the word "signature" may be used to refer to the characteristic(1.特質,特徴,2.独特の,特有の,特性の,独特の) expression of a process or thing. For example, the climate phenomenon(現象,驚くべき物(事),驚異) known as ENSO or El Niño has characteristic(1.特質,特徴,2.独特の,特有の,特性の,独特の) modes(様式,方法,形態,流行,様態,【文法】法,モード) in different ocean basins(1.洗面台,たらい,洗面器,水ばち,通常bowlより浅いたらいをいう,2.水たまり) which are often referred to as the "signature" of ENSO.

Copyright[edit]

Under British law, the appearance of signatures (not the names themselves) may be protected under copyright(著作権,版権,著作権で保護する) law.[5]

Under United States Copyright Law, "titles, names [...]; mere(単なる,ほんの) variations(変化,変動,変形物,変奏曲,変異) of typographic ornamentation,((No gloss)) lettering, or coloring"(着色剤,色合い) are not eligible(資格のある,適格の,望ましい,満足な,適格者,適任者,有資格者,できる,格好の,資格がある,有資格の) for copyright;(著作権,版権,著作権で保護する)[6] however, the appearance of signatures (not the names themselves) may be protected under copyright(著作権,版権,著作権で保護する) law.[7]

Uniform Commercial Code[edit]

Uniform Commercial Code §1-201(37) of the United States generally defines(本質を明らかにする,を定義する,範囲を限定する,定義する) signed as "using any symbol executed(芸術品を創作する,果たす,実行する,計画を実行する,曲を演奏する,契約を履行する,を死刑にする) or adopted with present intention to adopt or accept a writing."

Uniform Commercial Code §3-401(b) for negotiable(交渉できる,交渉の余地がある) instruments states "A signature may be made (i) manually(手で,手細工で) or by means of a device or machine, and (ii) by the use of any name, including a trade or assumed(身につける,当然と思う,引き受ける,装おう,見なす,仮定する,ふりをする,思う,信じる,様相を呈する) name, or by a word, mark, or symbol executed(芸術品を創作する,果たす,実行する,計画を実行する,曲を演奏する,契約を履行する,を死刑にする) or adopted by a person with present intention to authenticate(信頼できることを証明する) a writing."

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, accessed May 3, 2011.
  2. ^ 80 Corpus Juris Secundum, Signatures, sections 2 through 7
  3. ^ paraphe is a term meaning flourish, initial or signature in French. French to English translation by CollinsDictionary.com. Collins French-English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved November 09, 2012.
  4. ^ The paraph is used in graphology analyses.
  5. ^ Spilsbury, Sallie (2000). Media Law. Cavendish Publishing. p. p. 439. ISBN 1-85941-530-X. "An individual's signature may be protected under law as an artistic work. If so, the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright. The name itself will not be protected by copyright; it is the appearance of the signature which is protected." 
  6. ^ "Copyright Basics", United States Copyright Office. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  7. ^ Spilsbury, Sallie (2000). Media Law. Cavendish Publishing. p. 439. ISBN 1-85941-530-X. "An individual's signature may be protected under law as an artistic work. If so, the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright. The name itself will not be protected by copyright; it is the appearance of the signature which is protected."