Flood

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For other uses, see Flood (disambiguation).
Contemporary picture of the flood that struck the North Sea coast of Germany and Denmark in October 1634.
People seeking refuge from flood in Java. ca. 1865–1876.
Flooding of a creek due to heavy monsoonal rain and high tide in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.
Jeddah Flood, covering King Abdullah Street in Saudi Arabia.
Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilma's storm surge in October 2005.
Flooding in a street of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil in April 2013.
Flash flooding caused by heavy rain falling in a short amount of time.
Dozens of villages were inundated when rain pushed the rivers of northwestern Bangladesh over their banks in early October 2005. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured the top image of the flooded Ghaghat and Atrai Rivers on October 12, 2005. The deep blue of the rivers is spread across the countryside in the flood image.

A flood is an overflow(からあふれる,氾濫する,あふれる,いっぱいになる,氾濫) of water that submerges(水中に入れる,浸す,を沈める,を覆い隠す,(潜水艦が)潜水する,隠れる,埋もれる,沈める) land which is usually dry.[1] The European Union (EU) Floods Directive defines(本質を明らかにする,を定義する,範囲を限定する,定義する) a flood as a covering by water of land not normally(習慣に従って,ふつうに,順当に,標準的に,正常に,いつもの通り,通常) covered by water.[2] In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow(流入(する),⇔outflow(流出)) of the tide. Flooding may occur as an overflow(からあふれる,氾濫する,あふれる,いっぱいになる,氾濫) of water from water bodies, such as a river or lake, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries,(境,境界(線),限界)[3] or it may occur due to an accumulation(集積,蓄積,アキュムレーション,蓄積物) of rainwater on saturated(にしみ込む,に完全に浸される,を一杯にする) ground in an areal flood. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary(変わる,(形・性質などを)変える,改める,異なる,変化する) with seasonal(季節の) changes in precipitation(投下,軽率,墜落,落下,促進,早急,降下) and snow melt, these changes in size are unlikely to be considered significant(意義深い,重大な,意味のある,意味ありげな,重要な) unless they flood property(財産,所有(権),資産,所有地,地所,所有権,属性,特性,所有物,性質,固有性,不動産,【コンピュータ】プロパティ) or drown domestic animals.

Floods can also occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds((程度・限度など)を越える,を凌ぐ,より大きい,に優る,限度を越える,程度を越える,超える) the capacity(1.引受能力,容量,力量,収容能力,収容力,地位,容積,耐荷重,2.資格,立場) of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders(あてどなく歩く,曲りくねった道,曲がりくねって流れる,あてもなくさまよう) in the waterway.(排水溝,運河,水路) Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers. While riverine flood damage can be eliminated((余計なものを)削除する,無視する,排泄する,取り除く) by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, people have traditionally lived and worked by rivers because the land is usually flat and fertile(肥沃な,生産力の豊かな,多産な,創造力豊かな,繁殖力がある) and because rivers provide easy travel and access(にアクセスする,交通の便,接近,近づき,発作,面接,アクセス,手引き) to commerce(商業,貿易,交易,交際) and industry.

Some floods develop slowly, while others such as flash floods, can develop in just a few minutes and without visible(明白な,目に見える,明らかな,今手元にある) signs of rain. Additionally, floods can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community,(共同体,生活共同体,群生,共同社会,一般社会,団体,公衆,群棲,地域共同体,地域社会,コミュニティ,共有) or very large, affecting entire river basins.(1.洗面台,たらい,洗面器,水ばち,通常bowlより浅いたらいをいう,2.水たまり)

Etymology[edit]

The word "flood" comes from the Old English flod, a word common to Germanic languages (compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float; also compare with Latin fluctus, flumen). Deluge myths(作り事,神話,作り話) are mythical(神話的な,神話の) stories of a great flood sent by a deity(神,神性) or deities(神,神性) to destroy civilization(文明,文化,教化,文明社会) as an act of divine(神聖な,神の,牧師,察知する,発見する) retribution(仕返し,報復,天罰), and they are featured in the mythology(神話学,神話(集)) of many cultures.

Principal types and causes[edit]

Areal (rainfall related)[edit]

Floods can happen on flat or low-lying areas when the ground is saturated(にしみ込む,に完全に浸される,を一杯にする) and water either cannot((No gloss)) run off or cannot((No gloss)) run off quickly enough to stop accumulating.(積み重ねる,蓄積する,集める,増える,貯める) This may be followed by a river flood as water moves away from the floodplain into local rivers and streams.

Floods can also occur if water falls on an impermeable(しみ通らない,不浸透性の,通り抜けられない) surface, such as concrete(コンクリート,凝結物,具象的な,コンクリートで固める,具体的な), paving(舗装する,で舗装されている,を覆う,敷く,舗道,歩行者,徒歩の,歩行の,散文的な,平凡な) or frozen ground, and cannot((No gloss)) rapidly dissipate(散らす,消散する,道楽に耽る) into the ground.

Localized heavy rain from a series of storms moving over the same area can cause areal flash flooding when the rate of rainfall(【気象】雨量,降雨) exceeds((程度・限度など)を越える,を凌ぐ,より大きい,に優る,限度を越える,程度を越える,超える) the drainage(排水(法,装置,路,管),下水,汚水,排水区域,排水装置,排水路) capacity(1.引受能力,容量,力量,収容能力,収容力,地位,容積,耐荷重,2.資格,立場) of the area. When this occurs on tilled fields, it can result in a muddy flood where sediments(沈澱物,沈殿物,堆積物) are picked up by run off and carried as suspended(一時停止する,中止する,をつるす,一時中断する,吊す,延期する,つるす,漂わせる) matter or bed load.

Riverine[edit]

River or rambla flows may rise to floods levels at different rates, from a few minutes to several weeks, depending on the type of river or rambla and the source(情報源,みなもと,源,水源(地),出所,原因,出典) of the increased flow.

Slow rising(のぼりつつある,立ち上る,騰貴する,昇進する,あがる,増大する,上昇,起源) floods most commonly(一般に,通例,下品に,粗野に,通俗に,普通) occur in large rivers with large catchment areas. The increase in flow may be the result of sustained(1.支持する,維持する,受ける,支える,耐える,2.【法律】<発言など>を認める) rainfall,(【気象】雨量,降雨) rapid snow melt, monsoons(【気象】モンスーン), or tropical(1.熱帯の,熱帯性の,非常に暑い,猛暑の,回帰線の,熱帯地方の,2.比喩的な(metaphorical) cf.literal 文字どうりの,酷暑の,熱帯の) cyclones(温帯性低気圧,【気象】つむじ風). Localized flooding may be caused or exacerbated(激化させる,悪化させる,怒らせる,憤激させる) by drainage(排水(法,装置,路,管),下水,汚水,排水区域,排水装置,排水路) obstructions(じゃま,支障,障害,妨害,妨害物,閉塞(症),障害物) such as landslides(山くずれ,地滑り,圧倒的勝利), ice, or debris(《仏語》破壊の跡,廃墟,破片,残骸(ザンガイ);【地】岩屑(ガンセツ) / Japanese companies have grown from the debris of a lost war to take world leadership positions in a surprising number of industries.).

Rapid flooding events, including flash floods, more often occur on smaller rivers, rivers with steep valleys,r rivers that flow for much of their length over impermeable(しみ通らない,不浸透性の,通り抜けられない) terrain((自然地理・軍事上から見た)地域,地勢,地形,地面,環境,領域,分野) or ramblas. The cause may be localized(一地方に集まる,地方化する) convective precipitation(投下,軽率,墜落,落下,促進,早急,降下) (intense thunderstorms(【気象】雷雨)) or sudden release from an upstream(上流の,上流へ,流れにさからって,上流に) impoundment created behind a dam(せき止める,ダム,せき), landslide(山くずれ,地滑り,圧倒的勝利), or glacier(氷河).

Dam-building beavers can flood low-lying urban(都会の,都市の,都会ふうの,⇔rural) and rural(いなかの,田園の,農業の,田舎の) areas, occasionally(たまに,時折,時々,★"必要に応じて"とか,"何か起きたときに"と考えると理解し易い / You will occasionally be required to tune your system.) causing some damage.

Estuarine and coastal[edit]

Flooding in estuaries(広い河口,河口域,入江) is commonly(一般に,通例,下品に,粗野に,通俗に,普通) caused by a combination of sea tidal surges(1.(波となって)打ち寄せる,波打つ,沸き上がる,こみ上げる,押揺らぐ,急増する(to swell, to grow rapidly),2.うねり,波動,高潮,動揺,サージ,大波,殺到,高揚,活況) caused by winds and low barometric pressure, and they may be exacerbated(激化させる,悪化させる,怒らせる,憤激させる) by high upstream(上流の,上流へ,流れにさからって,上流に) river flow.

Coastal areas may be flooded by storm events at sea, resulting in waves over-topping defenses or in severe(厳しい,厳格な,能力(努力)を要する,きびしい,危険な,ひどい,極めて困難な,地味な) cases by tsunami or tropical(1.熱帯の,熱帯性の,非常に暑い,猛暑の,回帰線の,熱帯地方の,2.比喩的な(metaphorical) cf.literal 文字どうりの,酷暑の,熱帯の) cyclones.(温帯性低気圧,【気象】つむじ風) A storm surge(1.(波となって)打ち寄せる,波打つ,沸き上がる,こみ上げる,押揺らぐ,急増する(to swell, to grow rapidly),2.うねり,波動,高潮,動揺,サージ,大波,殺到,高揚,活況), from either a tropical(1.熱帯の,熱帯性の,非常に暑い,猛暑の,回帰線の,熱帯地方の,2.比喩的な(metaphorical) cf.literal 文字どうりの,酷暑の,熱帯の) cyclone(温帯性低気圧,【気象】つむじ風) or an extratropical cyclone(温帯性低気圧,【気象】つむじ風), falls within this category.(カテゴリー,範疇,部類)

Urban flooding[edit]

Urban flooding is the inundation of land or property(財産,所有(権),資産,所有地,地所,所有権,属性,特性,所有物,性質,固有性,不動産,【コンピュータ】プロパティ) in a built environment, particularly in more densely((No gloss)) populated(に人を居住させる,住む) areas, caused by rainfall(【気象】雨量,降雨) overwhelming(圧倒する,苦しめる,沈没させる,圧倒的な量の〜を与える,〜ぜめにする,打ちのめす) the capacity(1.引受能力,容量,力量,収容能力,収容力,地位,容積,耐荷重,2.資格,立場) of drainage(排水(法,装置,路,管),下水,汚水,排水区域,排水装置,排水路) systems, such as storm sewers(下水道,下水管,下水本管,縫う器具,縫う人). Although sometimes triggered(1.引き金,制動機,ばね止め,誘因,きっかけ,2.〜のきっかけとなる,〜を誘発する,誘発する,引き金) by events such as flash flooding or snowmelt, urban(都会の,都市の,都会ふうの,⇔rural) flooding is a condition, characterized(の特性を示す,特徴づける) by its repetitive((けなして)繰り返しの,繰り返しの多い(repetitiousより控えめな語)) and systemic impacts on communities,(共同体,生活共同体,群生,共同社会,一般社会,団体,公衆,群棲,地域共同体,地域社会,コミュニティ,共有) that can happen regardless(かまわない,無頓着な,不注意な,とにかく) of whether or not affected communities(共同体,生活共同体,群生,共同社会,一般社会,団体,公衆,群棲,地域共同体,地域社会,コミュニティ,共有) are located(の場所を見つける,位置を示す,定める,示す,の場所を決める,居住する,位置する,設置する,捜し出す) within formally(改めて,正式に) designated(指定する,指摘する,示す,表す,指名する,指示する,未就任の) floodplains or near any body of water.[4] There are several ways in which stormwater enters properties:(財産,所有(権),資産,所有地,地所,所有権,属性,特性,所有物,性質,固有性,不動産,【コンピュータ】プロパティ) backup(バックアップ) through sewer(下水道,下水管,下水本管,縫う器具,縫う人) pipes, toilets and sinks into buildings; seepage((No gloss)) through building walls and floors; the accumulation(集積,蓄積,アキュムレーション,蓄積物) of water on property(財産,所有(権),資産,所有地,地所,所有権,属性,特性,所有物,性質,固有性,不動産,【コンピュータ】プロパティ) and in public rights-of-way; and the overflow(からあふれる,氾濫する,あふれる,いっぱいになる,氾濫) from water bodies such as rivers and lakes.

The flood flow in urbanized(都市化する,都市風にする) areas constitutes(構成する,制定する,の構成要素となる,選ぶ) a hazard(危険にさらす,危険,冒険,偶然,運,災害,障害,要因となるもの,を危険にさらす,賭ける) to both the population and infrastructure.(インフラストラクチャ,下部構造,下部組織,基盤,構造基盤,経済基盤,会社の基礎設備,一国の経済成長を可能にする施設 / The consolidation of Thai infrastructure, including the construction of roads connecting the city and countryside, and the electrification of farming vlliages, ... タイの経済基盤の整備) Some recent catastrophes(悲劇的結末,大変動,破局,大災害,大失敗) include the inundations of Nîmes (France) in 1998 and Vaison-la-Romaine (France) in 1992, the flooding of New Orleans (USA) in 2005, and the flooding in Rockhampton, Bundaberg, Brisbane during the 2010–2011 summer in Queensland (Australia). Flood flows in urban(都会の,都市の,都会ふうの,⇔rural) environments have been studied relatively(比較的に,相対的に,比較的) recently despite((No gloss)) many centuries of flood events.[5] Some researchers(研究者) have mentioned the storage(保管,貯蔵(所),記憶,蓄電,保管料,記憶装置,ストレージ,貯蔵所) effect in urban(都会の,都市の,都会ふうの,⇔rural) areas. Several studies have looked into the flow patterns and redistribution in streets during storm events and the implication(連座,密接な関係,言外の意味,かかり合い,含蓄,巻き添え,示唆) on flood modelling.[6] Some recent research(調査する,研究(する),探求,調査,捜索,研究する) has considered the criteria(規準,基準,標準,特徴) for safe evacuation(撤退,排出,排気,疎開,排泄,避難,立ち退き) of individuals in flooded areas.[7] However, some recent field measurements(測量,測定,寸法,測定法) during the 2010–2011 Queensland floods showed that any criterion(規準,基準,標準,特徴) solely based upon the flow velocity,(速さ,速力,速度,高速) water depth or specific momentum(はずみ,いきおい,運動量,契機,勢い) cannot((No gloss)) account for the hazards(危険にさらす,危険,冒険,偶然,運,災害,障害,要因となるもの,を危険にさらす,賭ける) caused by velocity(速さ,速力,速度,高速) and water depth fluctuations.[5] These considerations(思いやり,考慮,熟慮,配慮,考察,(決定する際などの)理由,動機,報酬,考慮すべき事柄,理由考察) ignore further the risks associated(1.社員,仲間,準会員,coworker, colleague,2.結びつける,関連づける,連想する,結合させる,交際する,思い出す,仲間に加える,連合させる) with large debris(《仏語》破壊の跡,廃墟,破片,残骸(ザンガイ);【地】岩屑(ガンセツ) / Japanese companies have grown from the debris of a lost war to take world leadership positions in a surprising number of industries.) entrained by the flow motion.[7]

Catastrophic[edit]

Catastrophic flooding is usually associated(1.社員,仲間,準会員,coworker, colleague,2.結びつける,関連づける,連想する,結合させる,交際する,思い出す,仲間に加える,連合させる) with major infrastructure(インフラストラクチャ,下部構造,下部組織,基盤,構造基盤,経済基盤,会社の基礎設備,一国の経済成長を可能にする施設 / The consolidation of Thai infrastructure, including the construction of roads connecting the city and countryside, and the electrification of farming vlliages, ... タイの経済基盤の整備) failures such as the collapse of a dam(せき止める,ダム,せき), but they may also be caused by damage sustained(1.支持する,維持する,受ける,支える,耐える,2.【法律】<発言など>を認める) in an earthquake or volcanic(激しい,火山(性)の,火山の多い,爆発性の) eruption(噴火,爆発). See outburst(ほとばしり(out + burst),(感情の)爆発,突発,噴出) flood.

Effects[edit]

Primary effects[edit]

The primary(大統領予備選挙,基礎的な,第1位の,主要な,最初の,初期の,本来の,主要な事物,予備選挙,原始の,主要なものだ,第一の) effects of flooding include loss of life, damage to buildings and other structures, including bridges, sewerage(下水道,下水設備) systems, roadways(道路), and canals.

Floods also frequently(しばしば,頻繁に) damage power transmission(変速機,送信,伝達,伝染,伝送,伝導,発信,トランスミッション) and sometimes power generation, which then has knock-on effects caused by the loss of power. This includes loss of drinking water treatment(1.取り扱い,扱い,治療,待遇,処理,処置,2.台本,シナリオ) and water supply, which may result in loss of drinking water or severe(厳しい,厳格な,能力(努力)を要する,きびしい,危険な,ひどい,極めて困難な,地味な) water contamination.(堕落させるもの,汚すこと,よごれ,汚染,悪影響,汚染物) It may also cause the loss of sewage(下水,汚水) disposal(支配権,配置,配列,処理,売却,処分) facilities.(たやすさ,容易,設備,容易さ,腕前,施設,能力) Lack of clean water combined(結合する,企業合同,連合する,連合体,結集する) with human sewage(下水,汚水) in the flood waters raises the risk of waterborne diseases, which can include typhoid(【病名】腸チフス), giardia, cryptosporidium, cholera(【病名】コレラ) and many other diseases depending upon the location(記憶装置の割振り場所,位置,配置,ロケーション,野外撮影,位置の選定,場所,指定区域,場所の捜索,野外撮影地) of the flood.

Damage to roads and transport infrastructure(インフラストラクチャ,下部構造,下部組織,基盤,構造基盤,経済基盤,会社の基礎設備,一国の経済成長を可能にする施設 / The consolidation of Thai infrastructure, including the construction of roads connecting the city and countryside, and the electrification of farming vlliages, ... タイの経済基盤の整備) may make it difficult to mobilize(動員する,(軍隊など)を動員する,流通させる,集結する) aid to those affected or to provide emergency(非常事態,非常時,緊急事態,急場,突発事態) health treatment.(1.取り扱い,扱い,治療,待遇,処理,処置,2.台本,シナリオ)

Flood waters typically inundate(水浸しにする,氾濫させる,充満させる) farm land, making the land unworkable and preventing crops from being planted or harvested,(収穫する,刈取る,報い,収穫(する),収穫高,収穫期,結果,取り入れる,刈り入れる) which can lead to shortages of food both for humans and farm animals. Entire harvests(収穫する,刈取る,報い,収穫(する),収穫高,収穫期,結果,取り入れる,刈り入れる) for a country can be lost in extreme(極端な,非常な,極度の,過激な,最後の,窮境,危機,最後の手段,極端,果ての) flood circumstances. Some tree species(人類,種,種類) may not survive prolonged flooding of their root systems [8]

Secondary and long-term effects[edit]

Economic hardship(辛苦,苦難) due to a temporary decline(1.減少,減水,下り勾配,下り傾斜,下り坂,衰え,衰弱,衰退,下落,低落,2.衰退する,衰える,を断る,辞退する,を傾ける,謝絶する,減少する, 【文法】格変化させる,衰退する,下降,(文法)格変化させる,下る,断る) in tourism,(観光事業,観光旅行) rebuilding(再建する) costs, or food shortages leading to price increases is a common after-effect of severe(厳しい,厳格な,能力(努力)を要する,きびしい,危険な,ひどい,極めて困難な,地味な) flooding. The impact on those affected may cause psychological(心理的,心理学の,心理学的な,精神的な,心理的な) damage to those affected, in particular where deaths, serious injuries and loss of property(財産,所有(権),資産,所有地,地所,所有権,属性,特性,所有物,性質,固有性,不動産,【コンピュータ】プロパティ) occur.

Urban flooding can lead to chronically(慢性的に,常習的に) wet houses, which are linked(連結するもの,連接棒,を連結する,を握る,組み合う,たいまつ,輪,きずな,連鎖,可溶接解片,つながり,鎖の環,つながる,つなぐ) to an increase in respiratory(呼吸の) problems and other illnesses.[9] Urban flooding also has significant(意義深い,重大な,意味のある,意味ありげな,重要な) economic implications(連座,密接な関係,言外の意味,かかり合い,含蓄,巻き添え,示唆) for affected neighborhoods. In the United States, industry experts estimate(1.評価する,見積る,推測する,2.推定量,見積書,見積り,評価) that wet basements can lower property(財産,所有(権),資産,所有地,地所,所有権,属性,特性,所有物,性質,固有性,不動産,【コンピュータ】プロパティ) values by 10-25 percent and are cited(注意を喚起する,引用する,列挙する,特記する,〜を引き合いに出す,持ち出す) among the top reasons for not purchasing(仕入れる,買う,を買う,を購入する,を買える,を獲得する,価値,購買,買い入れ,購入品,買い物,てこ装置,購入,獲得,買った品物,獲得する) a home.[10] According to the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), almost 40 percent of small businesses never reopen((No gloss)) their doors following a flooding disaster.(天災,大災害,災難,災害,大失敗)[11]

Flood forecasting[edit]

Main articles: Flood forecasting and flood warning

Anticipating floods before they occur allows for precautions(予防(策),予防策,用心,警戒) to be taken and people to be warned [12] so that they can be prepared in advance for flooding conditions. For example, farmers can remove animals from low-lying areas and utility(役に立つこと,役に立つもの,【コンピュータ】ユーティリティ,ユーティリティー,有用性) services can put in place emergency(非常事態,非常時,緊急事態,急場,突発事態) provisions(但し書き,準備,用意,条項,規定,対策,設備,食料,供給,食糧を供給する) to re-route services if needed. Emergency services can also make provisions(但し書き,準備,用意,条項,規定,対策,設備,食料,供給,食糧を供給する) to have enough resources(救助の源,富,資源,資金,財源,資材,算段,手腕,頼み,手段,機略) available(効力のある,利用できる,有効な,役に立つ,入手できる,利用できる状態にある,製品が市販されている,人が会議や電話に出られる,ある,手が空けられる) ahead of time to respond to emergencies(非常事態,非常時,緊急事態,急場,突発事態) as they occur.

In order to make the most accurate(正確な,確実な,的確な,(占いなどが)あたる,明確な,厳密な) flood forecasts(1.【気象】予報,天気を予報する,2.予想する,前兆を示す,予定する,予測(する)) for waterways(排水溝,運河,水路), it is best to have a long time-series of historical(史実に基づく,歴史の,史学の,歴史上の,歴史に基づく,歴史上に起こった,史実に関する,歴史的な) data(データ,資料) that relates stream flows to measured past rainfall(【気象】雨量,降雨) events.[13] Coupling this historical(史実に基づく,歴史の,史学の,歴史上の,歴史に基づく,歴史上に起こった,史実に関する,歴史的な) information with real-time knowledge about volumetric capacity(1.引受能力,容量,力量,収容能力,収容力,地位,容積,耐荷重,2.資格,立場) in catchment areas, such as spare capacity(1.引受能力,容量,力量,収容能力,収容力,地位,容積,耐荷重,2.資格,立場) in reservoirs(貯蔵所,宝庫,熱だめ,貯水池,インク筒,蓄積), ground-water levels, and the degree of saturation(飽和) of area aquifers is also needed in order to make the most accurate(正確な,確実な,的確な,(占いなどが)あたる,明確な,厳密な) flood forecasts.(1.【気象】予報,天気を予報する,2.予想する,前兆を示す,予定する,予測(する))

Radar estimates(1.評価する,見積る,推測する,2.推定量,見積書,見積り,評価) of rainfall(【気象】雨量,降雨) and general weather forecasting(1.【気象】予報,天気を予報する,2.予想する,前兆を示す,予定する,予測(する)) techniques are also important components(構成している,成文,成分,構成要素) of good flood forecasting.(1.【気象】予報,天気を予報する,2.予想する,前兆を示す,予定する,予測(する)) In areas where good quality(良質な,質,性質,品質,良質,優良性,特色,特質,特性,上流社会の) data(データ,資料) is available,(効力のある,利用できる,有効な,役に立つ,入手できる,利用できる状態にある,製品が市販されている,人が会議や電話に出られる,ある,手が空けられる) the intensity(緊張,強烈さ) and height of a flood can be predicted(〜を予言する(予報)する,〜を予報する,を予言(予報)する,予言する,予測する) with fairly good accuracy(精密さ,正確,精度,正確さ) and plenty of lead time. The output(出した物,生産高,生産活動,出力,産出する,アウトプット,生産) of a flood forecast(1.【気象】予報,天気を予報する,2.予想する,前兆を示す,予定する,予測(する)) is typically a maximum(最大,最大限,最高の,最大限度) expected water level and the likely time of its arrival at key locations(記憶装置の割振り場所,位置,配置,ロケーション,野外撮影,位置の選定,場所,指定区域,場所の捜索,野外撮影地) along a waterway,(排水溝,運河,水路)[14] and it also may allow for the computation(計算(法),評価) of the likely statistical return period of a flood. In many developed countries, urban(都会の,都市の,都会ふうの,⇔rural) areas at risk of flooding are protected against a 100-year flood - that is a flood that has a probability(ありそうな事柄,ありそうなこと,蓋然性,見込み,公算,確率,可能性) of around 63% of occurring in any 100 year period of time.

According to the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Northeast River Forecast Center (RFC) in Taunton, Massachusetts, a general rule-of-thumb for flood forecasting(1.【気象】予報,天気を予報する,2.予想する,前兆を示す,予定する,予測(する)) in urban(都会の,都市の,都会ふうの,⇔rural) areas is that it takes at least 1 inch (25 mm) of rainfall(【気象】雨量,降雨) in around an hour's time in order to start significant(意義深い,重大な,意味のある,意味ありげな,重要な) ponding of water on impermeable(しみ通らない,不浸透性の,通り抜けられない) surfaces. Many NWS RFCs routinely(いつも,通常) issue Flash Flood Guidance and Headwater Guidance, which indicate(の印である,を指し示す,を表す,暗示する,を指す,を表示する,を必要とする,シグナルを送る,ほのめかす,示す,必要とする) the general amount of rainfall(【気象】雨量,降雨) that would need to fall in a short period of time in order to cause flash flooding or flooding on larger water basins(1.洗面台,たらい,洗面器,水ばち,通常bowlより浅いたらいをいう,2.水たまり).[15]

Control[edit]

Main article: Flood control

In many countries around the world, waterways(排水溝,運河,水路) prone(しやすい,うつ向きの,の傾向がある,のくせがある,しがちな,うつぶせの,うつ伏せの,往々にしてある) to floods are often carefully managed. Defenses such as detention(阻止,拘留,居残り,拘置) basins(1.洗面台,たらい,洗面器,水ばち,通常bowlより浅いたらいをいう,2.水たまり), levees,[16] bunds, reservoirs(貯蔵所,宝庫,熱だめ,貯水池,インク筒,蓄積), and weirs are used to prevent waterways(排水溝,運河,水路) from overflowing(からあふれる,氾濫する,あふれる,いっぱいになる,氾濫) their banks. When these defenses fail, emergency(非常事態,非常時,緊急事態,急場,突発事態) measures such as sandbags or portable(ポータブル,ポータブルの,移動可能な) inflatable(膨らませることができる) tubes are often used to try and stem(1.(〜の流れを)止める,(〜の流れが)止まる,2.(時流など)に抵抗する,3.幹,<草・木の>茎,葉柄,脚,茎に似た物,【文法】語幹) flooding. Coastal flooding has been addressed in portions(一人前,部分,分け前,分ける) of Europe and the Americas with coastal(海岸の,沿岸の) defenses, such as sea walls, beach nourishment(栄養状態,滋養物,食物,助成,育成,滋養,滋養を与えること,糧), and barrier(防壁,柵,仕切り,境界,国境のとりで,検問所,障害) islands.

In the riparian zone near rivers and streams, erosion(浸食,腐食) control measures can be taken to try and slow down or reverse(反対にする,逆の,反対の,後ろ向きの,背面の,あべこべ,うら,逆さにする,を入れ換える,反対,逆,敗北,逆行させる,逆行する) the natural forces that cause many waterways(排水溝,運河,水路) to meander(あてどなく歩く,曲りくねった道,曲がりくねって流れる,あてもなくさまよう) over long periods of time. Flood controls, such as dams(せき止める,ダム,せき), can be built and maintained over time to try and reduce the occurrence(出来事,発生) and severity(厳格,重大度) of floods as well. In the USA, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a network(1.ネットワーク,網細工,放送網,網状組織,2.個人の人脈を利用する) of such flood control dams.(せき止める,ダム,せき)

In areas prone(しやすい,うつ向きの,の傾向がある,のくせがある,しがちな,うつぶせの,うつ伏せの,往々にしてある) to urban(都会の,都市の,都会ふうの,⇔rural) flooding, one solution(1.(問題・疑問などの)解決(策),落着,2.【数学】(〜の)解法,解(答),解決,溶液,溶解) is the repair and expansion(膨張,発展,展開(式),拡張) of man-made sewer(下水道,下水管,下水本管,縫う器具,縫う人) systems and stormwater infrastructure.(インフラストラクチャ,下部構造,下部組織,基盤,構造基盤,経済基盤,会社の基礎設備,一国の経済成長を可能にする施設 / The consolidation of Thai infrastructure, including the construction of roads connecting the city and countryside, and the electrification of farming vlliages, ... タイの経済基盤の整備) Another strategy(兵法,戦略,戦術,計略) is to reduce impervious((物を)通さない,不浸透性の,傷つかない,不透水性,不通気性,無感覚の,鈍感な) surfaces in streets, parking lots and buildings through natural drainage(排水(法,装置,路,管),下水,汚水,排水区域,排水装置,排水路) channels, porous(小穴の多い,多穴性の,穴だらけの) paving(舗装する,で舗装されている,を覆う,敷く,舗道,歩行者,徒歩の,歩行の,散文的な,平凡な), and wetlands (collectively known as green infrastructure(インフラストラクチャ,下部構造,下部組織,基盤,構造基盤,経済基盤,会社の基礎設備,一国の経済成長を可能にする施設 / The consolidation of Thai infrastructure, including the construction of roads connecting the city and countryside, and the electrification of farming vlliages, ... タイの経済基盤の整備) or sustainable((No gloss)) urban(都会の,都市の,都会ふうの,⇔rural) drainage(排水(法,装置,路,管),下水,汚水,排水区域,排水装置,排水路) systems [SUDS]). Areas identified as flood-prone can be converted(変換させる,転換する,変換する,変える,を改装する,を改心させる,を転用する,変化させる,変化する,転向者,換算される,転向する) into parks and playgrounds that can tolerate(大目に見る,我慢する,耐える) occasional flooding. Ordinances can be adopted to require developers(住宅開発業者) to retain stormwater on site(用地,場所,遺跡,現場,跡,用地を定める) and require buildings to be elevated,(昇進させる,高める,高架にする) protected by floodwalls and levees, or designed to withstand(抵抗する,よく耐える,逆らう,耐える) temporary inundation. Property owners can also invest(1.投資する,金を使う,つぎ込む,投資する,2.付与する,3.人に着せる,覆う,取り巻く) in solutions(1.(問題・疑問などの)解決(策),落着,2.【数学】(〜の)解法,解(答),解決,溶液,溶解) themselves, such as re-landscaping their property(財産,所有(権),資産,所有地,地所,所有権,属性,特性,所有物,性質,固有性,不動産,【コンピュータ】プロパティ) to take the flow of water away from their building and installing(1.就任させる,任命する,2.取り付ける,すえつける) rain barrels, sump pumps, and check valves(バルブ,弁,水門の戸,真空管,弁で調節する).

Benefits[edit]

Floods (in particular more frequent(しばしば起こる,多い,頻繁な,たびたびの,よく訪れる) or smaller floods) can also bring many benefits, such as recharging(充電する) ground water, making soil more fertile(肥沃な,生産力の豊かな,多産な,創造力豊かな,繁殖力がある) and increasing nutrients(栄養物,食物,栄養がある) in some soils. Flood waters provide much needed water resources(救助の源,富,資源,資金,財源,資材,算段,手腕,頼み,手段,機略) in arid(乾燥した,不毛の,異常に乾燥した) and semi-arid regions(領域,地域,地帯,地方,分野,範囲,界) where precipitation(投下,軽率,墜落,落下,促進,早急,降下) can be very unevenly distributed throughout the year. Freshwater floods particularly play an important role in maintaining ecosystems(生態系) in river corridors(廊下,回廊) and are a key factor(仲買人,因子,要因,要素,原因,因数) in maintaining floodplain biodiversity(種の多様性).[17] Flooding can spread nutrients(栄養物,食物,栄養がある) to lakes and rivers, which can lead to increased biomass and improved fisheries(漁業) for a few years.

For some fish species,(人類,種,種類) an inundated(水浸しにする,氾濫させる,充満させる) floodplain may form a highly suitable location(記憶装置の割振り場所,位置,配置,ロケーション,野外撮影,位置の選定,場所,指定区域,場所の捜索,野外撮影地) for spawning(1.(水性動物が卵を)生む,卵を産む,2.卵) with few predators(食肉動物,略奪者) and enhanced((強さ・量・質・機能など)を増す,高める,向上させる,充実させる,(写真などの)画質を補正する) levels of nutrients(栄養物,食物,栄養がある) or food.[18] Fish, such as the weather fish, make use of floods in order to reach new habitats.(生息地,環境,居住環境,生育地,すみか,居住地,自生地) Bird populations may also profit from the boost(1.(急)上昇,尻押し,増加,励まし,2.押し上げる,高める) in food production caused by flooding.[19]

Periodic flooding was essential to the well-being of ancient(古い,古代の,古代からの,古来の,太古からの,古代人,昔からの,年を経た) communities(共同体,生活共同体,群生,共同社会,一般社会,団体,公衆,群棲,地域共同体,地域社会,コミュニティ,共有) along the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers, the Nile River, the Indus River, the Ganges and the Yellow River among others. The viability of hydropower((No gloss)), a renewable(継続する) source(情報源,みなもと,源,水源(地),出所,原因,出典) of energy, is also higher in flood prone(しやすい,うつ向きの,の傾向がある,のくせがある,しがちな,うつぶせの,うつ伏せの,往々にしてある) regions.(領域,地域,地帯,地方,分野,範囲,界)

Computer modelling[edit]

While flood computer modelling is a fairly recent practice, attempts to understand and manage the mechanisms(機構,機械装置,仕組み,手段,メカニズム) at work in floodplains have been made for at least six millennia(千年,千年間,千年祭,至福千年,黄金時代).[20] Recent developments(発達,開発,産物,進展) in computational flood modelling have enabled(に可能性を与える,できるようにする,可能にする) engineers to step away from the tried and tested "hold or break" approach and its tendency to promote(進展させる,(階級などを)昇進させる,成長を促進する,発展を助成する,助長する,(〜の普及を)促進する,増進する◆名詞はpromotion) overly(あまりに,過度に / He is not overly concerned with his appearance.) engineered structures. Various computational flood models have been developed in recent years; either 1D models (flood levels measured in the channel) or 2D models (variable flood depths measured across the extent(物の広がり,限度,範囲,程度,限界,広さ) of a floodplain). HEC-RAS,[21] the Hydraulic Engineering Centre model, is currently(現在(のところ)(at present),(世間)一般に,容易に) among the most popular computer models, if only because it is available(効力のある,利用できる,有効な,役に立つ,入手できる,利用できる状態にある,製品が市販されている,人が会議や電話に出られる,ある,手が空けられる) free of charge. Other models such as TUFLOW[22] combine(結合する,企業合同,連合する,連合体,結集する) 1D and 2D components(構成している,成文,成分,構成要素) to derive(の起源をたずねる,本源から〜を得る,由来する,派生する,引き出す,得る) flood depths across both river channels and the entire floodplain. To date, the focus(1.ピント,焦点,中心,的,震源,病巣,2.焦点を合わせる,集中する,(注意などが)集まる) of computer modelling has primarily(主として,第一に,最初に,元来) been on mapping tidal and fluvial flood events, but the 2007 flood events in the UK have shifted(1.変化,移動,変化,交替,2.急場しのぎの方法,3.変わる,を移す,変える,シフトアップする,シフトダウンする) the emphasis(強調,重要性,注目) there onto the impact of surface water flooding.[23]

In the United States, an integrated(統合する/させる,一緒にする) approach to real-time hydrologic computer modelling utilizes(〜を利用する,役立たせる,利用する) observed data(データ,資料) from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),[24] various cooperative(協同組合の,協力の,共同〜,生活協同組合,協同の,協力的だ) observing networks(1.ネットワーク,網細工,放送網,網状組織,2.個人の人脈を利用する),[25] various automated(自動化する) weather sensors(センサー(光・熱・音などに反応する感知器)), the NOAA National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC),[26] various hydroelectric(水力電気の,水力発電の) companies, etc. combined(結合する,企業合同,連合する,連合体,結集する) with quantitative(定量的な,量的な,量ではかれる,量に関する) precipitation(投下,軽率,墜落,落下,促進,早急,降下) forecasts(1.【気象】予報,天気を予報する,2.予想する,前兆を示す,予定する,予測(する)) (QPF) of expected rainfall(【気象】雨量,降雨) and/or snow melt to generate(発生させる,生み出す,生成する) daily or as-needed hydrologic forecasts.(1.【気象】予報,天気を予報する,2.予想する,前兆を示す,予定する,予測(する))[27] The NWS also cooperates with Environment Canada on hydrologic forecasts(1.【気象】予報,天気を予報する,2.予想する,前兆を示す,予定する,予測(する)) that affect both the USA and Canada, like in the area of the Saint Lawrence Seaway.

Deadliest floods[edit]

Below is a list of the deadliest floods worldwide,(世界的な(規模の),世界中に広まった,世界中あまねく) showing events with death tolls(1.料金,通行税,通行料金,使用料,場代,運賃,代価,報酬,犠牲,損害,死傷者数,2.晩鐘をつく,鳴らす,鐘を鳴らして知らせる,徴収する,死傷者,通行料,告げる,鐘を鳴らす,鳴る) at or above 100,000 individuals.

Death toll Event Location Date
2,500,000–3,700,000[28] 1931 China floods China 1931
900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887
500,000–700,000 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1938
231,000 Banqiao Dam failure, result of Typhoon Nina. Approximately 86,000 people died from flooding and another 145,000 died during subsequent disease. China 1975
230,000 Indian Ocean tsunami Indonesia 2004
145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
100,000+ St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530
100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971
100,000 1911 Yangtze river flood China 1911

In myth and religion[edit]

Flood myths(作り事,神話,作り話) (great, civilization-destroying(文明,文化,教化,文明社会) floods as divine(神聖な,神の,牧師,察知する,発見する) retribution(仕返し,報復,天罰)) are widespread(行き渡った,広げた,広範囲に及ぶ,広く行きわたった,いっぱいに広げた(翼),広まった,広範囲に亘る) in many cultures and religions. As a prime(1.火薬を詰める,準備する,下塗りする,2.首位の,根本的な,一流の,最上の,主要な,3.青春,全盛,全盛期,4.素数) example, the Genesis flood narrative(物語の,物語,談話,物語体の) plays a prominent(突き出た,突出した,目立った,顕著な,浮き彫りの,突出している,重要な,卓越した,著名な,有名な) role in Judaism and Christianity.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ MSN Encarta Dictionary. Flood. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. Archived 2009-10-31.
  2. ^ Directive 2007/60/EC Chapter 1 Article2. eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved on 2012-06-12.
  3. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). Flood. Retrieved on 2009-01-09.
  4. ^ Center for Neighborhood Technology, Chicago IL. “The Prevalence and Cost of Urban Flooding.” May 2013
  5. ^ a b Brown, Richard; Chanson, Hubert; McIntosh, Dave; Madhani, Jay (2011). "Turbulent Velocity and Suspended Sediment Concentration Measurements in an Urban Environment of the Brisbane River Flood Plain at Gardens Point on 12–13 January 2011". Hydraulic Model Report No. CH83/11 (Brisbane, Australia: The University of Queensland, School of Civil Engineering) (CH83/11): 120 pp. ISBN 978-1-74272-027-2. 
  6. ^ Werner, MGF; Hunter, NM; Bates, PD (2006). "Identifiability of Distributed Floodplain Roughness Values in Flood Extent Estimation". Journal of Hydrology (314): 139–157. 
  7. ^ a b Chanson, H., Brown, R., McIntosh, D. (2014). Human body stability in floodwaters: the 2011 flood in Brisbane CBD. Proceedings of the 5th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures (ISHS2014), 25–27 June 2014, Brisbane, Australia, H. CHANSON and L. TOOMBES Editors, 9 pages (DOI: 10.14264/uql.2014.48). doi:10.14264/uql.2014.48. ISBN 978-1-74272-115-6. 
  8. ^ Stephen Bratkovich, Lisa Burban, et al., "Flooding and its Effects on Trees", USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, St. Paul, MN, September 1993, webpage: Na.fs.fed.us-flood-cover.
  9. ^ Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Scientific Findings Resource Bank (IAQ-SFRB), “Health Risks or Dampness or Mold in Houses”
  10. ^ Center for Neighborhood Technology, Chicago IL “The Prevalence and Cost of Urban Flooding.” May 2013
  11. ^ “Protecting Your Businesses,” last updated March, 2013, http://www.fema.gov/protecting-yourbusinesses
  12. ^ "Flood Warnings". Environment Agency. 2013-04-30. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  13. ^ "Australia rainfall and river conditions". Bom.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  14. ^ "AHPS". Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  15. ^ "FFG". Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  16. ^ Henry Petroski (2006). Levees and Other Raised Ground 94 (1). American Scientist. pp. 7–11. 
  17. ^ WMO/GWP Associated Programme on Flood Management "Environmental Aspects of Integrated Flood Management." WMO, 2007
  18. ^ Extension of the Flood Pulse Concept. Kops.ub.uni-konstanz.de. Retrieved on 2012-06-12.
  19. ^ Birdlife soars above Botswana's floodplains. Africa.ipsterraviva.net (2010-10-15). Retrieved on 2012-06-12.
  20. ^ Dyhouse, G. "Flood modelling Using HEC-RAS (First Edition)." Haestad Press, Waterbury (USA), 2003.
  21. ^ United States Army Corps of Engineers. Davis, CA. Hydrologic Engineering Center
  22. ^ BMT WBM Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Queensland "TUFLOW Flood and Tide Simulation Software"
  23. ^ Cabinet Office, UK. "Pitt Review: Lessons learned from the 2007 floods." June 2008.
  24. ^ "WaterWatch". 4 February 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  25. ^ "Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network". Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  26. ^ "NOHRSC". 2 May 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  27. ^ "Advanced Hydrologic Prediction System". Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  28. ^ Worst Natural Disasters In History. Nbc10.com (2012-06-07). Retrieved on 2012-06-12.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]